Fight Songs – Lead vocals are done. Getting the mixes into shape to send out to collaborators and for writing backing vocals and keys
Night Mode – Two albums (companions) out to Drew and Damon for review/approval/release. Third album Only Mostly Dead probably finished and ready for art / CDs
Got weird and just made a noise project over the weekend, probably coming within a week or two under a new name. Might be a one-off, listening to it now!
SP-404 – Collaborative album with DrumBrute jams x Royce Diamond vocal samples coming together quickly. Seven down, two to go. Remix beat tape also progressing. Can’t decide which order to release them in
ESR Graphic Fuzz variant – On hold while I sang. Still thinking about it
Ampeg V4 – Back from the tech. Need to plug it in just for fun, probably tonight
LPLP – Returning soon! Nate’s been working on some refreshed logistics to make things easier for our guests
I think that’s most of it? Santa brought two new modular… modules… and I’m still figuring them out, but I’m sure I’ll make a record with those soon in the vein of Thinking About The Meaninglessness…
This noise thing is niche, but really cool, I think.
In randomized order, here is the best music Howie heard in 2021.
Abul Mogard, “In Immobile Air” – The varieties of ambient music continue to surprise me. Mogard (a pen name, almost certainly) combines simple pitches and noise like sculpture, crafting installations I seem to approach, wander around, and gently walk away from.
Nala Sinephro, “Space 1.8” – Sax and synth sound like they were made for each other in Sinephro’s cosmic, jazz-inspired explorations.
Nao, “And Then Life Was Beautiful” – Nao’s singular unification of vintage and modern R&B styles. Taking her debut EPs together she’s one record away from acing the Five Album Test, and I don’t doubt she’ll get there.
Dosh, “Tomorrow 1972” – Minneapolis’ favorite multi-instrumentalist returns with a fresh set of jazzy, Steve Reich-y loop jams that both hit the old pleasure centers and explore new territory.
Reach, “Life’s One Valid Expression” – Listen to Reach’s episodes of The Long Play Listening Party to hear me stumble over the combination of craft and raw truth I hear encompassed in L.O.V.E.
Kowloon Walled City, “Piecework” – KWC put themselves through a crucible with every effort, refining their barely-controlled chaos further each time. Incredible heaviness achieved with a surprisingly small amount of actual distortion.
Bummer, “Dead Horse” – After the cacophony of the first couple listens passes, you’ll notice that KC’s Bummer are doing next-level noise rock composition. How they keep their riffs straight, I’ll never guess.
Hieroglyphics, “3rd Eye Vision” (1998) – The Souls of Mischief documetary “Til Infinity” (watch it free on YouTube!) sent me down a lot of rabbit holes this year and I haven’t yet reached the bottom, but “3rd Eye Vision” is a standout.
Bonehunter, “Dark Blood Reincarnation System” – Non-stop pedal-to-the-metal blackened thrash riffs that sound… fun! Bonehunter blend the joy of Maiden with modern agression. Killer mix, too.
Snail Mail, “Valentine” – Deceptively sophisticated writing. If the vocals aren’t your thing I get it, but I like them. It seemed to be a banner year for singer-songwriter indie (which I, admittedly, don’t listen to a lot of any more) and Snail Mail led the pack.
Stik Figa, “East of MacVicar Ave.” / “Joyland” (w/ Conductor Williams) – Stik, DJ Sean P, and Conductor cover a wide swath of hip-hop territory on this year’s releases, from the summer sidewalks of Topeka neighborhoods to the twisted reflections of funhouse mirrors. After meeting Stik through my podcast, listening feels like hanging out with a friend.
Dark Satellites, “David The Gnome’s Adrenochrome Thunderdome” – Within the limitations of my bias and involvement, I can’t stress enough that Drew earns this place on my list, album after album. There’s no better song in his catalog than “Well Hell.”
The Hold Steady, “Open Door Policy (Live)” – What if Craig Finn made a solo record with his band, and it was awesome? Great songs that truly unfold when the horns enter in “Spices” and roll on from there. “‘Cause they’re never going to love you that one specific way that you want them all to love you.” < dead > “This coffee’s cold / This toast is gross / I no longer see the romance in these ghosts.” < deader >
Ulla Straus “Tumbling Towards A Wall” (2020) – I’ve struggled to find words for how warm this record makes me feel. It’s not comfort food, though; it’s a new amalgam of gauzy synths and woozy beats. A little like… Kid A?
Milkdrop, “Thirty Eight” / “Wet Paint” – To my ears Milk arrives at the place he’s been driving toward for a decade and a half with these releases. Don’t let the fact that they go down easy distract you from their depth.
Lnrd d$stroy, “Snacks V.1” – Camping in the center of the Venn among producer beat tape, rap album, and lo-fi beat playlist, “Snacks V.1″s channel-flipping vibes hit just a little different than anything else. Oozes freshness.
Asterales, “So Easy f Royce Diamond” – My friends hit me right in the feelings with this one. I don’t know how you’ll hear it but it’s extra deep to me, knowing the guys behind it.
Medicine, “Shot Forth Self Living” (1992) – I don’t remember what prompted me to check out this old ’90s band for the first time this year, but their debut stands up alongside classics like “Loveless” and “Doppelgänger.”
The Best Music Cory Heard In 2021
Joe Hisaishi, “Spirited Away” score (2001) – Because of What Happened, I’ve been able to see SO many movies on my “Watch Before I Die” list. This Japanese animated kids’ movie from Studio Ghibli kept appearing at the top of “Best Movies Ever” lists, and I finally found out why. It’s a brilliant and breathtaking film that gets you right in the groin of your heart, in no small part due to its score. It somehow made me feel nostalgic the very first time I heard it.
Emitt Rhodes, “The Emitt Rhodes Recordings” (1969 – 1973) – The ’60s and ’70s were absolutely jam-packed with bands making astounding pop music, but because we already had The Beatles and The Beach Boys and The Kinks, many of them were lost to time. Emitt Rhodes wrote, performed, and recorded these songs by himself in his parents’ Hawthorne, CA garage (no small feat, especially at that time!). In another universe, he’d have topped the charts, but we live in this one.
Trent Reznor & Atticus Ross, “Soul” soundtrack (2020) – I watch a LOT of Disney movies now. Most of them are excellent. Soul is the story of a middle-aged NYC band teacher who finally gets his big break, then promptly falls into an open manhole cover. I am not sure which Disney exec loved The Social Network enough to get the NIN dudes on board, but they got it right. The guys made the perfect Disney movie score without compromising any of their values or becoming any less terrifying.
The Stranglers, “Golden Brown” (1981) – Their larger discography is OK, but “Golden Brown” doesn’t sound like any of it. It’s a harpsichord-driven psychedelic pop song about heroin from a band that mostly played new wave and punk music. According to the band, the song was a fluke that came out of nowhere and became their biggest hit by far. Maybe it was all leading to this song. It’s unbelievably good and pretty weird. I can listen to it every day.
The La’s, “The La’s” (1990) – Unlike The Stranglers, The La’s made records where every song stands up to the single. Which is incredible, considering how good “There She Goes” is. It might be perfect. I think it probably is. So when I listened to this record and found that all the other songs held their weight, I was pleasantly surprised. They are simple, catchy, and absolutely unique. They might have raised the bar too high for their own good with this record; since it was released, the main songwriter has recorded and shelved more records than most bands have released. Maybe one day!
My honorable mentions are really strong this year. Personally, I love them as much as the “best” music I heard above. I’ve listed them separately because their appeal may be more niche; the choice does not reflect my thoughts on the merits of the work below! It has been a phenomenal year for new music. -Howie
Czarface, “Super What?” – Like Wu-Tang crossed with actual Silver Age comics, pure old head fun.
Big|Brave, “Vital” – Genuinely mean this; I really like the song that Big|Brave continues to write.
Katatonia, “Dead Air” (2020) – This live-in-studio set was my introduction to the band’s vast catalog of goth metal, featuring more drum polyrhythms than you can shake a stick at.
Casual, “Fear Itself” (1994) – Another highlight from my Souls of Mischief-related sonic journeying.
Backxwash, “I LIE HERE BURIED WITH MY RINGS AND MY DRESSES” – Backxwash follows the Polaris prize-winning “‘God Has Nothing To Do With This Leave Him Out Of It” by bashing out some noise-rap bangers without worrying too much about them; an ideal response.
Ghostmind, “Trill” (2020) – Until the next Ghostmind LP “Dark Blonde Light Brown” arrives I’ll content myself with this hazy collection of immaculately-played funk-soul-rock.
Umwelt, “Galvanic Vestibular Stimulation” (2007) – After deciding that Orbital Debris vol. 1 was an electro record (after making it, that is) I started a deep dive through electro history and found Umwelt, one of the hip-hop-meets-Blade-Runner genre’s most accomplished modern practitioners.
Van Ripper & Galactifader singles – When Cory sent me a rough mix of “Extra Virgin” I thought it was a lark. An awesome one, but a lark. Subsequent singles have proved VR&G have legs, and I can’t wait to have 40 minutes of whatever this is to bang. Makes my list for the total transformation it contains and represents for Cory and Mike, as well as for the songs.
Jon Hassell, “Vernal Equinox” (1980) – I haven’t found a way to explain how ambient trumpet and congas can sound so cool and unique.
Kill Lincoln, “Can’t Complain” (2020) – I’m not sure if there’s any direct influence between early-aughts Lincoln ska-punk and this, but Kill Lincoln inspires the same level of jump-kicking with 12% more metalcore.
Killer Be Killed, “Reluctant Hero” (2020) – In a better universe this would be mainstream, widely played hard rock.
Suckapunch Records, “Hit ‘Em Where It Counts” (2002) – Fun to randomly discover that Nick (or somebody) put the Suckapunch comps on Bandcamp so I could complete my collection. JV Allstars, Fatty and the Twins, Same Old Crap, Anchondo, Cuterthans; all the old Lincoln punk is here.
Picking up from my last post, here’s my live-blog of listening to Crash after 13+ years of not listening to it.
So Much To Say – Been a minute. This feels good. Cool riff, love the horn lines.
Two Step – Classic. I’m realizing for the first time how different the production is from UTTAD. The hard-panned guitars are gone, the layers of morphing pads and sustaining violin and whatnot are gone. This sounds more like a big, clean, natural-sounding 70s record, but hi-fi. It’s probably a better sound for the band, though the immersive murkiness of UTTAD works in places. Fade out is a bummer, write an ending you fools!
Crash Into Me – Unfortunately, this has not aged well. The song and recording are fine, but it’s not escaping its own overplayed-ness to my ears. My poor mom had to overhear me play this so many times :( :(
Too Much – Wow, and we’re jamming again, “Crash” really killed the energy.
41 – Dual electric guitars! Cool new atmosphere. That sax ostinato does it for me. It’s wild how much of this I hear in V for Voice, from the writing to the playing to the mix, which was not on my radar at all. Just that formative, I suppose. I was completely chasing this album in the V for Voice production and had zero idea that’s what I was doing.
Say Goodbye – Dave is such a cheeseball here but it’s a little charming. A little.
Drive In Drive Out – Huge “start of side 2” energy. This rips. That is bad shit, indeed.
Let You Down – This is an interlude, not a song, and it ought to have been cut in half. The parts are nice enough.
Lie In Our Graves – Ah man, I’d forgotten about this one completely. I hope it holds up. < … > It mostly does! Solos in live versions are better, but this studio version is pretty weird at least.
Cry Freedom – Great production, OK song. Needs a more intense vocal performance to gel, maybe.
Tripping Billies – Bold move to bury this in the tracklist! I forgot (or never realized?) how incredibly horny this album is. Holds up.
Proudest Monkey – Probably best to consider this a super-indulgent b-side or bonus track, ought to have been hidden. Goes hilariously hard on its central lyrical conceit. For fans only.
“Proudest Monkey” – Sooooooooo dorky! SO dorky.
This whole album is chafing itself raw against the back of an acoustic guitar with only tie-dye pajama pants as a buffer. Even the nonsexual lyrics sound bonery!
Two-Step and #41 are both pretty rad.
Yes, so even though yr songs don’t sound like DMB, I think there are certain formative bands that creep into our songs no matter what because they have defined what a song is for us (and by extension what it is to write a song). And something your songs (and esp h&s songs) often have in common with DMB are their very thoughtful ambitious arrangements and transitions and finishing touches. They make the difference between a pretty good song and a terrific song, just the right chord or an unexpected harmony or whatever that creates a TON of depth very deftly. Rich and interesting without ever being ostentatious.
For me it’s probably early Weezer records / Nirvana / Green Day. I can get as folky or ambient or weird as I want, but it all comes down to strong melodies and simple song structure.
Crash helped give a generation of upstarts permission to do whatever they wanted with their own music. That sort of broad philosophical inspiration was altogether different than what Nirvana, Pavement, or most every other rock act cooler than the Dave Matthews Band supplied at the same time.
I sent the review to Cory, who said:
I still listen to that and “Under the Table…” from time to time! Especially if I want some thoughtful serenity. “Under the Table” makes me feel straight-up better and think-ier and more hopeful which is why I like it better. “Crash” makes me feel kind of the same but also weirder? They were definitely the easiest band to clown on in the ’90s. SUPER successful hippies in a band who wrote radio-friendly songs that were seemingly un-scandalous but often pretty horny! But those records are great and unlike anything else I can think of.
Do you still listen to those guys from time to time? I’m going to put “Crash” on now and hike my skirt up!
I had not listened to either album since importing them to iTunes in 2008, so I started to, and I live-blogged my reactions, now posted below.
The Best Of What’s Around – Oh my god there is so much going on in this mix! Like a moderate number of parts, but they’re all busy AF, and the hard-panned acoustic guitars doing fairly different things is wild.
What Would You Say – This still sounds pretty good. Funky & poppy, like Toad The Wet Sprocket but also Prince could sound cool covering it?
Satellite – Intro should only be 3 riffs. This is nice, though. Appreciate the deeper, growlier, more compressed bass. Radio edit would be sufficient.
Rhyme & Reason – Kinda forgot this one. Probably because I don’t think Scott and I ever played it.
Typical Situation – Ah yeah, feeling that thing of when I used to really conjure the vibes when we played this. Real quiet/loud dynamic going on. Covering this in the style of Nirvana might get some YouTube plays.
Dancing Nancies – Initial pre-filter thought 0.2 seconds in: “Oh no.” The stop/start dynamics are pretty effective. Verse riff is cool with that high part, and weird outro is good. More of a jam than a song though.
Ants Marching – Well, here we are. This is the immovable force of the discography. I like how the different melodies lead into the turns / chorus. Much cleaner, poppier mix. Bass sounds awesome in the choruses, growling again. Cool hoe-down. This is still good.
Lover Lay Down – John Denver should cover this. Muppets optional but recommended. Great palate-cleanser, I appreciate this much more than I did back in the day. Mic placement is much closer & more intimate, almost bedroom pop. Brushes on the floor tom sound killer. Outro jam is sick.
Jimi Thing – “Oh no.” I’m realizing Dave is good at dressing up jams as songs by making sure the verse and chorus aren’t in the same key. WTF is the chorus but it’s kind of good, partially redeems the “song.” This song always kind of sounded like it was recorded in a warehouse, which is ironic given the next song on the album. Sax solo outro is good, including the band’s parts, except for the fact that it fades out.
Warehouse – I’m into this. Woodblock / agogo bell use is kind of aggressive tho :( Satisfying harmonic relationships among the different sections. I like hearing his voice break in the jam. Actual ending, and it’s very nice!
Pay For What You Get – I don’t remember this at all, must have skipped it a bunch or bailed after “Warehouse.” Relative minimalism is appreciated.
34 – Also don’t remember, I guess “Warehouse” was the end for me. Though, I’m remembering that there’s a bunch of one-second tracks and a hidden track on the CD or something? (Googles.) Oh, this was track 34. Pleasant comedown. WAIT, we’re going hard again?? That was too much, I liked just the chill part.
I like “Pay for What You Get” pretty well! “Jimi Thing” was always a skipper for me; anything quite quirkily funky or funkily quirky made me hit “next.”
“What Would You Say” is pretty good and the pre-chorus is the best part (“…cannot speak for all the rest”).
Best songs IMO are “Satellite” and “The Best of What’s Around.” I wasn’t able to re-appreciate the latter until 30ish when I was more able to suspend my deep aversion to anything resembling corniness. When I was 14 it didn’t bug me, then it bugged me really badly, then I could let it slide. Sometimes it’s hard to tell the difference between meaningful sincerity and cloying platitudes, and I guess it depends on how cliche the sentiment is. The second lyrics start to veer into “Live Laugh Love” territory, I’m taillights.
I broke the ice on lead vocals for Fight Songs over the long Thanksgiving weekend. Three songs down, eleven to go.
Practicing over the past few weeks has really paid off. (Shocker!) I was really struggling to find notes and maintain steady pitches when I started. Singing for an hour three or four nights a week for about three weeks has put me in a pretty good place at this point.
I’m starting with the songs that are lowest in my register, and will work upward. There’s no rush but I’m aiming to finish around New Year’s Eve.
During my first trip to Ghana, I bought and had shipped home a player-grade djembe made by a guy named Brain. (Yes, Brain, “a-i.”)
Mike Morris liked the drum and wanted one, I remember. I told him I could get one, and as I recall I took his money, and sent it to Brain with an order.
After that, my memory is unreliable. Over the years I’ve had a growing sense that the drum never arrived, to the point that I’ve wanted to see Mike and talk about it. As a younger person my attitude was that doing international business in cash transfers entailed risk, and this risk was disclosed; buyer beware. Now I feel more like I put my word on a deal and need to square up on it, one way or another.
But here’s the twist; I saw Scott last weekend (to return his Rhodes to him; whole other story!) and he has a drum made by Brain. One that I didn’t know about (or knew, and completely forgot – entirely possible!)
He said his folks gave it to him as a surprise in the fall of 2003. That would have been right when I left for my second time in Ghana. So we have a mystery:
How many drums did the Morrises order? One, or two?
Did I never find out that one drum was delivered? I was out of touch for three months after it was delivered, then didn’t move back on campus, then graduated and moved to Minnesota. We practiced and played a few shows, but they were all electric, with a drum set (not djembe). We didn’t record. And it went to Scott, not Mike (who I’d taken the money from)
Or did I know, and forget entirely? I’m about 50/50 on never knowing vs. forgetting
Do I owe Mike anything?
It’s not much in the grand scheme of things, but for several years now this has been the thing from my past I’ve ruminated on the most (not a lot, but the most) and wanted to clear up. And it turns out there’s a good chance it’s either a missed communication, or something my brain invented after losing track of the fact that this loop was closed 18 years ago.
I’d made up my mind to open the subject with Mike at a V for Voice show and offer him his money back or a donation to a charity of his choice, but he was on vacation. Then COVID hit. I guess I should have gone over and talked to him outside when I was home last Christmas. But now, serendipitously, we have a lot of new (“new” – ?) information.
:it is a mystery:
One I may have to make a donation to NMEA to get off my conscience, even if ultimately I imagined the whole thing.
When I first started recording, I got an inaccurate understanding of compression stuck deep in my mind. I only really started to exorcise it a few years ago, and I still think the way compression is often explained is confusing. (Maybe I’ll post a follow-up on The Compression Conspiracy, or maybe it will come out here.) I’ll attempt to explain compression clearly and simply, touching on limiting and clipping along the way.
Compression is automatic volume reduction, or “variable attenuation” if you prefer. Compression is not soft clipping or peak reduction*.
* Peaks will be reduced in the course of automatic volume reduction processing, but since the whole signal is being reduced it’s confusing to call that result “peak reduction”
Compression is like having a gremlin enthralled to your instructions, whose hand is on a volume knob. You can tell the gremlin how fast to turn the volume down when your input signal gets loud (compressor “attack” time), how fast to turn the volume back up when the input signal gets quieter again (compressor “release” time), how loud is “loud” to you (compressor “threshold”), and whether you want your gremlin to turn down the volume a little, or a lot (compressor “ratio”).
The gremlin’s name is the “control circuit” or “sidechain,” a version of the input signal that is processed to detect volume, and therefore when to turn the signal volume down and back up.
Automatic volume reduction or “variable attenuation”
Limiter (Theoretically a compressor with an infinite ratio. In practice, a compressor with a ratio of about 10:1 or greater)
Effect on input signal
Change in wave amplitude (volume)
Change in wave shape (timbre) and peak level
Varies; usually a few milliseconds to a few hundred milliseconds
The results of compressors are often visualized incorrectly, so let’s start with an article that does it right; “Understanding Compressor Attack And Release Times” by Pro Tools Expert. They created the excellent image below, which I’ve scribbled on.
Notice how the attack time begins when the input signal initially crosses the threshold, and the first cycle of the signal passes through the compressor with no volume reduction (red circles). Also notice how the output signal retains its wave shape (nice and pointy at the peak); only the amplitude (i.e. volume, i.e. distance from the gray center line to the peak in the image) is reduced.
What has happened here, musically? The compressor has emphasized the initial transient (red-shaded “attack time” section) relative to the sustain or “body” of the sound (orange-shaded section). We might describe the result as having more “punch.” We might perceive the compressed sound as quieter than the input (notice the decreased amplitude of the wave in the orange-shaded section) and decide to turn up the volume of the signal across the board, after the compressor in the signal path, to compensate.
Here is the incorrect – but shockingly common – way to visualize the effect of compression. What is shown here is actually soft clipping. (If you go to the trouble of image-searching this you’ll see the author acknowledges such later in the article; kudos to them for that. Many people don’t!)
Why is this misleading? If you compare this to the first image, you’ll see that this image doesn’t show anything about attack or release time, and it changes the shape of the signal peak, which compressors don’t do! Extremely unhelpful. This is how compression was first explained to me, resulting in many years of confusion and frustration. If this post can help one person avoid that, I’ll be happy. (HI CORY)
Here’s a slightly better version (scribble in orange), though it still doesn’t explain anything about attack and release.
Getting from compression to limiting is a matter of ratios. Think about our gremlin again. For gentle compression we might tell them “For every two clicks louder than the threshold the signal gets, turn the volume down one click.” That’s a 2:1 compression ratio. Or we could tell them four clicks in, one click out; a 4:1 ratio.
Now imagine we tell our gremlin “Whatever happens, DO NOT UNDER ANY CIRCUMSTANCES let the sound get louder than the threshold!” That would be an infinite ratio; no matter how loud the input signal, our gremlin turns down the volume knob as much as necessary to make sure the output does not exceed the threshold. (It still takes the gremlin a few milliseconds to actually turn the knob down and up, so attack and release times are still in play, and the peak levels of the output signal might exceed the threshold in those milliseconds while the gremlin is turning the volume down.)
In practice, once we get to a ratio of 10:1 or 20:1 it’s roughly equivalent to an infinite ratio to human ears. We call compressors with high ratios and fast attack and release times “limiters,” but it’s all automatic (gremlin-controlled) volume reduction and there’s not a sharp line between what gets called a compressor and what gets called a limiter.
Clipping is changing the peak shape of a signal. (Image credit.)
As you can see the peak level is also changed as a result of the shape change – they’re two sides of the same coin – but it’s the change in shape that changes the timbre (i.e. tone, or quality) of the sound. Clipping is distortion of the input signal in a literal sense, and it’s also the sound of distortion in a subjective sense. The sound you imagine when I wrote “distorted guitar,” that’s the guitar’s signal being clipped.
Clipping is instantaneous; just like you see in the image above, it occurs on a cycle-by-cycle basis.
I want to stress the differences between clipping and compression, since they’re often mixed up. But one similarity between soft clipping and lower-ratio compression is that the output signal remains correlated with the input signal above the threshold level. Likewise, hard clipping is similar to infinite ratio limiting in that above the threshold, increases in input signal do not result in corresponding increases in output (with the previously noted exception for limiters’ attack times).
Another difference between clipping and compression is where the “threshold” sits in the processing. In clipping the threshold is in the signal path; it changes the sound signal itself. In compression and limiting the threshold is in the control signal path (i.e. it is a rule given to the volume knob gremlin). A compressor’s threshold setting does not change the signal itself directly, but rather controls the automatic volume reduction of the audio signal in combination with the attack and release times and compression ratio.
Long story short:
Compression and clipping are very different audio processing effects. Compression is like a gremlin-controlled volume knob. Clipping is distortion (which can range from subtle or planet-destroying)
Limiting is a type of compression (not a type of clipping)
There is a lot of confusing information about compression online; think critically!
The world of guitar (and synth, and bass…) modulation effects overwhelmed me at first, but I’ve learned that most pedals and plugins are based around just a couple of ideas.
Flange (chorus with feedback)
Vibrato (chorus with no dry signal)
Uni-Vibe or “Vibe” (phaser with mis-matched filters)
Time-based effects are created by 1) copying the input signal, 2) delaying the copy by a small amount (a few milliseconds), 3) automatically changing the delay time (say, from 27 ms to 33 ms and back), and then 4) mixing the input (or “dry,” or “not delayed) and delayed signals together (typically at a 50:50 ratio). The resulting sound is a pseudo-doubling effect with a bit of pitch going up and down, some frequencies of the input signal enhanced, and others diminished. Boom; basic chorus.
Flangers operate on the same principle, with shorter delay times and feedback in the delay signal path (just like a delay or echo pedal), resulting in a more pronounced effect. Flangers with knobs for feedback amount are often great modulation pedals because they can cover a lot of territory from subtle near-chorus to crazy flying saucer flange.
Vibrato – the signal’s pitch moving up and down – is just chorus without the dry signal. When the delay time is getting shorter, the pitch is going up, and vice versa. You can test this out on your own with any delay pedal; play a sustaining note or chord, then turn the delay time faster or slower. You’ll hear the pitch of the delayed signal go up or down accordingly.
Filter-based effects are created by 1) copying the input signal (noticing a pattern here?), 2) sending the copy through a series of all-pass filters, 3) automatically changing the center frequencies of the all-pass filters* (say, from 500 Hz to 2000 Hz and back), and then 4) mixing the input (or “dry,” or “not all-passed”) and filtered signals back together. The resulting sound has a series of mid frequency cuts that move up and down. We’re phasing!
* Optional sidebar – Filters are usually used to boost or cut certain frequencies in a signal. All-pass filters don’t boost or cut any frequency, but they delay the frequencies around the center frequency a tiny amount. If an all-pass filter’s center frequency is 1000 Hz the frequencies around 1000 Hz are delayed the most (still a tiny amount), the frequencies around 500 and 2000 Hz are delayed less, the frequencies around 250 and 4000 Hz are delayed less (almost none), and so on.
The all-pass filters in Uni-Vibe or “Vibe” effects are purposefully mis-matched. This was originally done to mimic the sound of a rotary speaker cabinet. Most people don’t consider it a particularly accurate re-creation of that sound, but it has a cool sound of its own (I adore the “Vibe”-type sounds of my Wilson Effects Haze! There’s even an unreleased Mars Lights song named after that pedal).
Other modulation effects
Amplitude (volume) modulation – tremolo – is the other main type of modulation effect. This is simply the volume of a signal going up and down regularly, like a couple of times per second.
Some Fender amps incorrectly call this type of built-in amplitude modulation “vibrato” instead of tremolo.
Real rotary speaker cabinets and re-creations of them have much more complex modulation going on than a chorus or phaser. There’s pitch modulation, phase modulation, amp distortion, speaker breakup, and more, and these changes interact with each other in complex ways. Rotary speaker cabinets are amazing.
Vibrato and “Vibe”-style effects are often and understandably confused for each other due to the similar names. However, they are generated by different types of circuits and have different sounds.
Wah and auto-wah effects are also filter-based, but a different type of filter (resonant bandpass or lowpass) than phasers (all-pass). Wah effects are not usually considered modulation because the player controls the change in sound, rather than it being done automatically by the circuit.